Strabismus surgery, or eye muscle surgery, is performed on children and adults to treat misaligned eyes when non-surgical treatment is ineffective. Strabismus, or eye misalignment, is marked by eyes that do not move together normally, which is caused by intraocular muscle imbalance. When the eyes are functioning properly, the muscles attached to the eye work together to move the eyes in the same direction at the same time. Strabismus causes muscles to function improperly, leaving individuals unable to control eye movement – especially during times of rest. Specialists in pediatric ophthalmology often treat strabismus since it is most commonly seen in infants and young children, although older children and adults can develop it, too.